What is Clustering?

What’s Business Clusters?

Business Clusters is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers and associated institutions in a particular field and includes all sectors and organizations that contribute to the existence of its economic assets. For example, an automotive Clusters covers auto accessories and spare parts suppliers, machine tools manufacturers and institutions rendering necessary infrastructural Service as well as automotive manufacturers.

Business Clusters include a wide range of actors from complementary product manufacturers to distributors and customers. Business Clusters often gather around universities, standardization bodies, think tanks, vocational training institutions and public and private enterprises which provide technical support.

Therefore business Clusters is an economic phenomenon that exists independently from any intervention, organization or project.

(The above definitions have been developed depending upon the definitions and information from the article titled “Clusters and New Economics of Competition” written by Michael E. Porter in Harward Business Review and the report “Automotive Clustering in Europe” published by Europe INNOVA.)

Clusters Initiatives

Clusters initiatives are organized efforts to increase the growth of Clusters by regulating relations and/or enhancing colloborative potential between existing actors within a region.

Reference: Ketels, Lindqvist, Sölvell, (Clusters Initiatives in Developing and Transition Economies) Stockholm, 2006.

Clustering Policy

Clusters development policies are actions practiced by public to leverage Clusters.

Clusters Road Map

Clusters road map is a stractegic guide identifying the relevant activities and/or activity groups, in another words Clusters actions, to determine the vision and strategy of Clusters initiatives.

When were the first Clustering practices initiated?

Clustering practices have been successfully pursued and have yielded effective results in many countries from Western, Eastern and Central Europe to United States of America; from People’s Republic of China to Japan.

How and why are Clusters formed?

It is not legal obligation but inter-institutional trust and colloboration that hold Clusters together. Clustering practices are of great importance for economic development because of the fact that companies in a Clusters perform more effectively and creatively than those which operate singlehandedly. Clustering facilitates business networks and corporations between a number of suppliers, customers, competitors, universities, research centers and other actors within a particular geographic location and accordingly contributes to increase the performances of companies.

What are the key features of Clustering?

Proximity, networking and specialization are three key features of Clustering. Proximity requires companies to be at close-range in terms of accession to specialized labour and tacit and tangible information interchange. Networking enables local suppliers, customers, competitiors, universities and research nuclei to establish joint labour relations and connections among themselves. Specialization is an incidence requiring division of labour in an industry.

What is Clusters facilitator?

The key element of Clustering, Clusters facilitator serves as a bridge to gather Clusters stakeholders in Clusters development process together and to combine their colloborative skills.

What are the benefits of Clustering for enterprises?

The enterprises which are included in a robust Clusters achieve growth more expeditiously than solo enterprises. Because the enterprises focus on the best practices thanks to the robust Clusters by which they are covered. Also, the existence of specialized suppliers and labour force and supportive organizations allows for the enterprises to develop in competitive position.

What is the connection of universities and R&D studies with Clusters?

Robust Clusters are supported by the training and education institutions, universities and specialized R&D organizations in the region. There is a bilateral relation between academia, R&D organizations and enterprises. Bidirectional flow of not only information but also individuals provides numerous benefits for the development of both parties.

What is the role of government in Clusters activities?

Governments are the most influential actor in Clusters activities. They perform actions as a “Clusters facilitator” by enabling a number of stakeholders to gather around a Clusters. Another function of them is to create an association between Clusters and public institutions and bodies.

How are Clusters identified?

Successful Clusters generally emerge spontaneously in the ordinary course of business. However, they are required to be determined and supported for improvement. For this reason, it is rarely possible to create a Clusters from scratch. A Clusters is built upon pre-existing structures through inclusive analyses and statistical studies.



Chamber of Industry and Commerce is the authority of Regional Competitiveness Operational Programme (RCOP- CCI No. 2007 TR 16 I PO 003). RCOP is one of the policy support documents included in the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) which was launched within EU Enlargement Strategy adopted by European Council in December, 2004. The Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance aims at preparing Turkey for better management of future Structural Funds and accordingly supporting Turkey in membership negotitations in 2007-2013 through Clustering Analysis in RCOP Provinces in March, 2009. Within this instrument, Turkey has fulfilled the requirements as a candidate country in 5 components: Institutional Capacity Building, Cross-border cooperation, Regional Development, Human Resources Development and Rural Development. RCOP is one of three sub-components in Regional Development Component.




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Ekleme Tarihi: 26.05.2013